- The partners have developed three sub-23 nm particle measurement devices (two were originally planned): one laboratory system and two mobile devices.
- The catalytic stripper was optimized to have >60% penetration efficiency at a particle size of 8 nm (beyond the expectation of 50% at 10 nm), and a removal efficiency of the semi-volatiles of >99% for tetracontane particles.
- The new technology was validated using three configurations: chassis dyno tests with equipment measuring at the tailpipe, chassis dyno tests with equipment at the CVS tunnel, and real road tests. The results show that sub-23 nm particles are mainly generated at the engine start and during acceleration phases.
- The repeatability of all three devices is within the current legislative limit: there is a high consistency between different RDE testtesttests and a good repeatability and the differences are between 15% and 35% (current legislative limit = 50%).
- As planned, the new sub-23nm lab and on-board systems can be applied and handled as the established PN23 measurement systems.
- The technology is currently being evaluated by JRC and (from a technical perspective) is ready to be commercialized.
- For the first time, using chemical composition analysis and statistical component analysis, it was possible to identify key molecular markers and discriminate particles by source, size and engine regime.
- Particles were identified according to gasoline-specific bonds, lubricant specific bonds and engine-specific bonds. A large amount of information has been collected, that feeds into the model-guided application.
- The online aerodynamic mass mobility measurements, together with the offline morphology structure composition analysis, clearly and unambiguously showed the effectiveness of the catalytic stripper.
- The experimental methodology that was developed by ULille in PEMs4Nano for characterizing nanoparticles is now recognized nationally and internationally.
- From the beginning of the exhaust aftertreatment running through the catalyst and through the silencers, the particle formation was modeled according to size distribution and particle number concentrations.
- For the first time, the particle number and volatiles can be calculated as a function of drive cycles on a vehicle level.
Dissemination and exploitation
- The PEMs4Nano consortium participated in 47 conferences, including e.g. major international aerosol meetings and the TRA2018 and TRA2020 meetings.
- 7 peer-reviewed articles have been published, and 5 more are under review.
- The project was highly visible, with 2 articles making it to the journal cover.
- It has won 4 prizes, including the Trojan Horse award at the ETH Particle Meeting 2019, a paper selected as one of the best papers at the SAE 2019 conference, and the Prix Jean Bricard 2020 prize.
- A patent on a semi-volatile mass detector was filed.